What is programming?
In computer science, programming means the development of programs or applications through a source code that dictates instructions to a computer to run those programs. This set of steps is what allows the equipment to work and perform the tasks that the user requests in an effective, fast, understandable way.
The set of organized instructions that are executed with programming is known as algorithms, and this is what lets the electronic equipment’s software work properly.
What is a programming language?
For programming to be possible, it is necessary to develop a language that establishes communication between the programmer and the computer. This is an artificial language consisting of signs, symbols, and words that provides the necessary instructions for executing a program or application. This sequence is automatically recognized, translated, and processed by the machine.
Just like natural languages, programming languages also have different semantic and syntactic rules according to which their phrases are ordered, giving their pieces meaning.
What types of programming languages are there?
There are different types of programming languages, each with its own characteristics and particularities that differentiate them from one other. Roughly speaking, they are divided into two types:
- Low-level languages, which establish direct communication with the binary language of computers. They, in turn, can be divided into:
- Machine language: based on a binary code, that is, written based on 0 and 1.
- Assembly language: differs from the previous one because it is designed to be written and understood easily by programmers and users, being shorter and more intuitive.
- High-level languages, which make it easier for users to understand algorithms and are easier to learn. They have to be translated into machine language so that computers can execute them; they are adapted to machine code by means of interpreters (which execute the source code step by step, without there being a translation in the pre-execution) and compilers (translators from source code to machine code).
What are the elements of programming?
- Operators: symbols to indicate the application of mathematical operations.
- Reserved words: language terms that establish the execution of a specific, exclusive instruction that cannot be used for another purpose.
- Variable: data that changes in the execution of the program or application.
- Identifier: term to identify the different variables that exist in the programming process.
- Constant: data that remains unchanged in the execution of the program.
What are the most commonly used programming languages?
- Python: performs programming independent of the platform with code that is simple, readable, fluid, and concise.
- Java: one of the easiest to use for object-oriented programming thanks to its Virtual Machine Technology with maximum transparency and easy maintenance. It has the ability to program for various platforms such as iOS, Android, Windows, etc. It is a statically-typed language, and all the program variables have to be indicated before being implemented.
- C: one of the first programming languages, which has given rise to others such as C++. It stands out for the quality of its code, allowing total control over the systems it creates. Has the ability to perform both high-level and low-level functions.
- C++: object-oriented programming language known for its speed and its large libraries of complex codes that facilitate fast, high-performance mathematical calculation. It has imperative functions.
What types of programming are there?
- Structured and modular: designed in modules, and each performs a specific task. When the execution of a task is required, a call is made to its module. This type of programming aims to improve and reduce the processing time of the sub-algorithms within the main algorithm.
- Sequential: designed with guidelines that work in sequence one after the other.
- Logical: it uses programs that have interfaces that let the user dictate commands to the machine through a simple language.
- Object-oriented, which uses entities with their own characteristics and behaviors to find solutions. This type of programming is used to structure software in simple, reusable pieces (called classes) and create large systems designed for interactions between the components.